nutritional supplementation

This time we are going to talk about the supplementation of nutrients during aerobic endurance sports and strength training, which is very important, but is the area that most people neglect.

Generally speaking, few people will pay attention to the aerobic endurance sports and strength training before, during and after the systematic supplementation, you may drink some protein powder, eat some bananas or buns after training, think that this is not bad, but in fact you have only achieved a as a trainer basic nutrition supplementation baseline, from the systematic “supplement” this is still far from.

And, even if the strength training before, during and after everyone paid attention to the supplement, but what about aerobic endurance training? Should you supplement the front, middle and back? Add what? How much should be added? It’s all questions.

This time we’re going to use two articles to say what should be added before, during and after aerobic endurance exercise and strength training in order to best benefit at the level of muscle building and increasing maximum strength.
Please read this premise of this article clearly.
Please read this premise of this article clearly.
Please read this premise of this article clearly.

Before, during and after aerobic endurance exercise supplementation

In this previous installment, let’s start with aerobic endurance exercise pre-mid and post supplementation.
Notice that our direction is focused on the relationship between supplementation before, during, and after aerobic endurance exercise and muscle gain and maximal strength.
And we’ll only briefly mention the relationship between supplementation before, during, and after aerobic endurance exercise in relation to aerobic endurance performance.

The relationship and principles of aerobic endurance exercise and the effects of muscle growth and strength

Some readers may be wondering, what does aerobic endurance training have to do with muscle building?
Actually the main question is a question of whether and how much muscle is lost.
In addition, aerobic endurance exercise affects muscle glycogen stores in the muscle, so this will indirectly affect muscle gain.

But before we get to that, let’s emphasize one thing, aerobic endurance training, and muscle gain and improving maximal strength, are inherently contradictory.

That is to say, it is impossible to achieve perfect compatibility between muscle building and endurance improvement, and both have an effect on each other.

Why do they affect each other? It manifests itself in these few places.

1. At the muscle fiber level

In terms of muscle physiology, aerobic endurance training, exercise muscle inside is hoping that the greater the proportion of type I muscle fibers the better (of course, this is not completely absolute, can only say that in general. Because the aerobic endurance project is also divided into many kinds, some not only requires aerobic endurance, but also requires instant sprint, climbing, change direction and so on ability, which is also related to the muscle strength endurance), in fact, observe the excellent aerobic endurance project athletes muscle physiology, can also find this phenomenon.

Aerobic endurance training contributes to changes in muscle physiology that favor aerobic endurance ability, such as an increase in the proportion of type I muscle fibers.
Here we note that it is true that the proportion of muscle fibers can be altered to some degree by different training methods. However, it is controversial whether the muscle fibers are absolutely interchangeable.

Generally speaking, it “seems more likely” that a type II muscle fiber will “change” into a type I muscle fiber (note the “change” in quotes). But on the other hand, it seems unlikely that a type I would change into a type II at the moment.

Then, among type II muscle fibers, it “seems easier” to change from IIB to IIA, and conversely, it seems difficult to change from IIA to IIB.

Again, be sure to pay attention to the words I used above that indicate the degree, such as “seems” and “relatively”. Don’t try to understand everything absolutely, black and white, regardless of these differences in degree.

The possibility of interconversion of muscle fibers is not very easy at the moment, or only in very limited cases.

In addition, even if the muscle fiber type does not change, different training methods can change the characteristics of the muscle fibers.
Aerobic endurance training, for example, will make a type II muscle fiber more like a type I muscle fiber; strength training, on the other hand, may make a type I muscle fiber slightly more like a type II muscle fiber.
This change in muscle fiber characteristics also has an impact on the final training adaptation.

Finally, aerobic endurance training, which may lead to an increase in the proportion of type I muscle fibers, is also often due to the fact that aerobic endurance training leads to some degree of atrophy of type II muscle fibers, such that the proportion of the two types of muscle fibers changes.

2. The biochemical environment of the muscle

The biochemical environment of the muscles is also altered.

Aerobic endurance training, for example, increases the muscle’s ability to oxidize fat.
Strength training, on the other hand, generally increases the ability of muscles to oxidize sugar (attention level).
So, there is an interplay between the two.

3. Excessive aerobic endurance training to lose musclesl

Excessive aerobic endurance training is still going to lose more muscle anyway. This obviously also has a direct impact on muscle gain.

So, when we talk about how to “lose less muscle” from aerobic endurance exercise, we want to get as close to this point as possible, to some extent.

It’s not that the way we talk about it, aerobic endurance training will not lead to no muscle loss no matter what, it’s not always possible, again, it’s a matter of degree.
If you’re running a marathon and you want to maintain maximum muscle gain, it’s simply not possible.

Specific supplementary methods


Okay, we’ve just finished talking about some of the necessary prefix relationships, and we’re now going to start talking about how to supplement for aerobic endurance exercise.

As we just said, this article on supplementation for aerobic endurance sports is going to be two-fold.

  1. reducing muscle loss.
    2, full replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise. The two are directly or indirectly very conducive to muscle growth.

The first thing you need to do is to take into account the fact that you’re going to be able to get the most out of the exercise.

Of course, are you going to say that you’ll start losing muscle in 31 minutes, or not in 29 minutes? This is again simplistic thinking.
Because everyone is different, in terms of gender, age, nutrition, health, training, individual differences, etc., it is simply impossible to give a time that is right for everyone.

It can only be roughly recommended, and for most cases, no more than 30 minutes is recommended.

So if you’re working out a little longer with aerobic endurance exercises, or want to be more confident in maintaining maximum muscle gain and with as little impact from aerobic endurance exercises as possible, then it’s even more important to pay attention to the before and after of your aerobic endurance supplement.

Of course, the situation is even more complicated if you’re also thinking about fat loss.

There is essentially no clear advice to give, so to speak, and it can only be.
Not considering fat loss, but maximizing muscle gain, then follow our recommendations for supplementation.
If you are considering fat loss, then supplement less.

Rigorous scientific advice can only be given to this extent at the moment, because science isn’t everything after all, and much can’t be done yet.

2. supplementation before aerobic endurance exercise

From current research, it seems that pre-aerobic endurance supplementation is becoming increasingly important.
Before aerobic endurance, this is the time to supplement, but how much is “before”?
The two main times are 2-4 hours before aerobic endurance exercise and 30-60 minutes before aerobic endurance exercise.

The reason why 30-60 minutes before aerobic endurance exercise is not very meaningful is because muscle glycogen supplementation also needs time, and 30-60 minutes is not enough.

Some might say that carbohydrate supplementation before that aerobic endurance workout is good for muscle glycogen and good for athletic performance, but it’s not going to do much for muscle gain, right?
It actually works.

The reason for this is that the more adequate the muscle glycogen stores are at the beginning of aerobic endurance exercise, the less likely you are to lose muscle.
Muscle glycogen depletion is a “prelude” to increased muscle protein oxidation.

So, it’s safe to assume that if you’re thinking about maximizing your muscle gains, you should always be mindful of your muscle glycogen stores.
Not to mention that with adequate muscle glycogen stores, strength training is more effective, with better strength endurance, better muscle congestion, and more enthusiasm for strength training.

Supplementation before aerobic endurance exercise is generally recommended 2-4 hours before aerobic endurance exercise to supplement sugar + protein.
30-60 minutes before aerobic endurance exercise is currently not recommended supplementation, not that it can not be supplemented at all, but that this time point of supplementation, whether the harm outweighs the benefit, or the benefit outweighs the harm, respectively, to what extent, it is not yet known.

How much supplementation?
There is no definite recommended amount, but in general, if you are eating a normal diet, then 1 gram of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight before aerobic endurance exercise is about right.
The form of carbohydrates that are easy to digest is recommended, such as rice steamed buns are no problem.

With protein, it does not need a lot, whey protein powder 20-30 grams is generally enough. Of course, this is only to consider sports nutrition, for healthy people.

Of course, some readers say what if I do aerobic endurance exercise in the morning? The answer is: no way.

Really, because sports nutrition or even sports medicine as a whole, is not a panacea.
We definitely don’t recommend getting up in the middle of the night to supplement, so if you’re doing aerobic endurance exercise in the morning, then we recommend getting up and supplementing quickly, and also focusing on supplementing during exercise.

This is to say the supplement before aerobic endurance exercise, we say the supplement during the aerobic endurance exercise.

3. supplementation in aerobic endurance exercise

It is generally accepted that sugar supplementation during aerobic endurance exercise is not definitively helpful in increasing muscle glycogen stores. However, it may help to stabilize the amount of muscle glycogen, which can be beneficial.

The amount of supplementation, then, is too much to be meaningful because it is limited by the rate of sugar oxidation during aerobic endurance exercise, and our own rate of carbohydrate uptake.

Generally speaking, the rate of carbohydrate oxidation during aerobic endurance exercise tops out at about 1 gram per minute, so that’s 60 grams per hour.

Here’s a detail! There are many studies that have found that if we supplement with a sugar mixture during aerobic endurance exercise, it increases the rate of sugar oxidation during exercise.
For example, some studies have found that supplementing with a glucose + sucrose mixture during moderate intensity aerobic exercise can increase the oxidation rate of carbohydrates by 21%, or to about 1.2 g/min. Then a maltodextrin + fructose mixture would increase the oxidation rate to 1.5 grams per minute.

So, this is what is recommended for supplementation during aerobic endurance exercise.
Ensure a baseline amount of about 60 grams of sugar per hour, for example, with a sports drink with 6% sugar content, 1 hour of slow supplementation is 1000 ml. If the aerobic endurance exercise capacity is particularly demanding, then it can be about 70 grams for 1 hour.

The best choice of sugar is recommended to be sucrose, because sucrose itself is half glucose and half fructose. It is not very recommended to use fructose to match, poor supplementation is likely to lead to gastrointestinal discomfort.

In terms of form, the supplement in aerobic endurance exercise is generally better if it is protein + sugar, which is the same as the supplement before aerobic endurance exercise.

For protein, whey protein powder is still recommended. It’s really simple, just add about 2% concentration of protein solution to the sugar drink.

Many studies have found that protein + sugar supplementation during aerobic endurance exercise helps to improve athletic performance and reduce muscle damage and wastage, which has a direct benefit on the level of muscle building.
Let’s look at the experiment below, which is a comparison of the effects of sugar supplementation during aerobic endurance exercise, versus the effects of sugar + protein supplementation on athletic performance.

Data from Saunders, Kane and Todd 2004

Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage
on Cycling Endurance and Muscle Damage

This is about the methods and details of supplementation during aerobic endurance exercise, and supplementation after aerobic endurance exercise to seemingly less important in comparison.

4. supplementation after aerobic endurance exercise

In fact, it’s not true that it’s not important. For example, after aerobic endurance exercise, the most important thing is always to fill the muscle glycogen, because as we said, it takes time to fill the muscle glycogen, mainly after aerobic endurance exercise.

We’ve talked about muscle glycogen filling before, not here.
Post aerobic endurance exercise supplementation, we’re going to focus on timing here.
The recommendation for timing of execution is to supplement quickly after aerobic endurance exercise exercise.
Let’s look at the following experiment.

Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional
Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and
Protein Co-Ingestion

So, in terms of timing, the recommendation is to supplement immediately after aerobic endurance exercise, but if we delay supplementation, the downside is that the recovery of muscle glycogen in a limited period of time is not ideal.

However, if we are not in a hurry, the recovery of muscle glycogen after a longer period of time is generally similar, regardless of whether we supplement immediately or postpone supplementation.
Why so-so? Because this idea is also controversial. So if you’re a conservative trainer, it’s actually advisable to supplement immediately after your workout.

Well, we’ll see you in the next installment.

By Kenneth

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